Hi, I've never quite understood how to precisely get the loudness when mastering a song. Let me explain my process and you'll probably get what I do wrong, miss, or misunderstand: - I mix my songs so that everything sounds as good as I can, with the "relative" levels between instruments being OK. When looking at the Master Fadder in Reaper I'm usually in the range of -10 to -5dB, it really depends. - On some songs, maybe the guitars will be recorded louder or something, so when adjusting my mix, I don't really try to achieve the same "Master Level Fadder" on every song. I just try to make it work and sound OK. I don't really look at the Master Fadder all that much. - Then, when at the mastering step, I usually start with some EQ'ing and Multiband compression, and then I use 3 bus compressors in series. For example, my first one will only tame the big peaks, and the other ones will just slightly even out everything. I usually boost the output of the last 2 bus compressors, to get some volume/loudness. - At that stage I'm usually still not quite at 0dB on the master fadder, and this is the part where I'm confused. Even if I crank my bus compressors enough to be flirting with 0dB... when I compare to reference songs, they are still louder..... So, what am I suppose to do? At the moment I simply use a L1 Limiter, I set the limit to -0.1dB and I lower the threshold until I find that the volume is loud enough. But this seems wrong. And to top it all, this makes matching the loudness between each song quite complicated. It's really an iterative process that isn't really precise... :S I'm sure most of the stuff I do isn't alll that legit. I'm no pro after all, but that last step with the limiter is the one where I just don't know how to do it. I just lack education in that department. Hence my kind request for help. Thanks in advance.