I am calling on this forum, Tyra and all to help me out with this topic. I am taking a class on political economy of race and one of our section is African presence in early Europe. I have to lead a one hour discussion on the above topic. The above title refers to an essay written by Don Luke. The main premise of the essay in on the presence of African people in northern and N-W Europe within historic and late pre-historic times. The argument is to demonstrate that as early as Aurignacian period African had made their way up to these regions and left not only a physical but also cultural presence in these regions. The work also draws from writers such as George Gomme and Charles Squire who assert that the original inhabitants of the isles were not Celts and non-Teutonic but also philologically allied with people which spoke a non-Aryan language. Further authors that I am reading also include Gerald Massey and Albert Churchward who exhamined the Nile Valley origins of British culture. My question here, is how this early presence is rendered in Norse mythology? Some reference hint at Halfdan "The Black" and the arrival of Ynglings who came to these regions bringing with them new skills and knowledge, especially customs of dealing with the dead. Other references relate to the Edda and the Light Elves, Dark Elves and Black Dwarves and the realm of Svartheim. Here authors point to the early inhabitants Twa of the Dorset culture referred to as Skraelings, Lapps and Ainu culture. The essay makes mention of Thrall as an Africoid character in the Edda. The offspring of Odin's son Heimdall. In Green's version Thrall is not identified as being black but he is in Gwyn Jones' book. I think this is open for debate, some might find it interesting, others would simply, refute the possibility of any African presence in those regions. Black Dwarves, Dark Elves are the Twa who Eric the Red discovered already occupying Greenland; "Skraeklings". There are many other references but I don't want to make this thread overly complicated. I am looking for people's opinion on that, maybe something some had not thought about, possibly some article, references, links to other sagas like LOTR. I'd be interested in hearing Tyra's opinion and others who might have scholarly reference to share.